EASA Private Pilot Licence (PPL)

General

The EASA PPL(A) is an internationally recognized, non-expiring “lifetime” licence. Once issued, the licence is held, unless it is provisionally suspended, suspended or revoked by the issuing authority or is surrendered by the holder. However, for the licence to be valid for any particular flight, the medical certificate and relevant aircraft ratings must be valid. Holders shall not act in any capacity as pilot of an aircraft, unless they have a valid and appropriate class or type rating, except when undergoing skill tests, or proficiency checks for renewal of a class or type rating, or receiving flight instruction.

EASA

EASA stands for European Union Aviation Safety Agency. It is the centerpiece of the European Union’s strategy for aviation safety. Its objectives are:

  • to promote and achieve the highest common standards of safety and environmental protection in civil aviation
  • to ensure you have the safest possible flight

EASA does not issue licences! Instead, in every EU Member State, the respective National Aviation Authority (NAA), often referred to as competent authority, issues licences (or ratings or approvals or certificates), according to the standards set out by the applicable European Regulations.

Just like with a car driving licence, you can get your licence in any EU Member State, irrespective of your citizenship.

EASA Private Pilot Licence (PPL)

A Private Pilot Licence (PPL) is first of all…a licence! It’s well similar to a personal car driving licence, but for aircraft. Its holder is licensed” to “pilot” an “aircraft” for “private purposes.”

In other words…

Private purposes = You can’t earn money while exercising the privileges of a PPL! What are the PPL privileges then? Coming up…
Pilot = Either as a verb or a noun, it’s effortlessly accepted as a word synonym to “fly” or “flyer”, respectively.
Licence = A document! A rather special document though, as you will discover if you carry on reading below…
Aircraft = Etymologically refers to “craft” (vessels) travelling through the “air”. Namely, Aeroplanes, Helicopters, Airships, Balloons, Sailplanes, etc.

In Europe, the following Private Pilot Licences exist:

EASA PPL(A)  – Private Pilot Licence (Aeroplanes)
EASA PPL(H)  – Private Pilot Licence (Helicopters)
EASA PPL(As)Private Pilot Licence (Airships)

In Europe, Balloons and Sailplanes enjoy their own pilot licensing system, namely EASA BPL and EASA SPL; EASA Balloon Pilot Licence and EASA Sailplane Pilot Licence, respectively.

European pilot licences, other than the PPL

In ascending order of  “privilege’s strength”, the following European licences are encountered:

EASA Light Aircraft Pilot Licence (LAPL)
EASA Private Pilot Licence (PPL)
EASA Commercial Pilot Licence (CPL)
EASA Multi Pilot Licence (MPL)*
EASA Airline Transport Pilot Licence (ATPL)

The privileges of the holder of a PPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL;
The privileges of the holder of a CPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL and a PPL;
The privileges of the holder of an ATPL are, within the appropriate aircraft category, to exercise all the privileges of the holder of an LAPL, a PPL and a CPL;

* The MPL is a newly introduced (and fairly controversial) pilot licence. The majority of its holders are co-pilots employed mainly by Asian and Gulf commercial airline carriers.

European pilot licences Vs. Aircraft categories

With respect to the various aircraft categories, the following European pilot licences exist:

Aeroplane category:  EASA LAPL(A), EASA PPL(A), EASA CPL(A), EASA MPL(A), EASA ATPL (A)
Helicopter category: EASA LAPL(H), EASA PPL(H), EASA CPL(H), EASA ATPL (H)
Airship category: EASA PPL(As), EASA CPL(As)
Balloon category: EASA BPL
Sailplane category: EASA SPL

EASA PPL(A)

Privileges

The privileges of the holder of a EASA PPL(A) are to act without remuneration as Pilot-In-Command (PIC) or co-pilot of Aeroplanes or Touring Motor Gliders (TMGs) engaged in non-commercial operations and to exercise all privileges of holders of an EASA LAPL(A).

Notwithstanding the paragraph above, the holder of a PPL(A) with instructor or examiner privileges may receive remuneration for:

(1) the provision of flight instruction for the LAPL(A) or PPL(A);
(2) the conduct of skill tests and proficiency checks for these licences;
(3) the training, testing and checking for the ratings or certificates attached to this licence.

Medical Requirements

The pilot shall hold at least a valid EASA class-2 medical certificate, when exercising the privileges of her/his PPL.

Minimum Age

16 Years of Age: A student pilot for a PPL(A) shall be at least 16 years of age before first solo flight. A trainee is allowed to enroll on a PPL training course at a younger age, as long as her/his academic background and physical anatomy enable her/him to follow the theoretical syllabus, while properly fitting in the cockpit seat. In exact words, the corresponding paragraph in the EASA regulation says “a person undertaking training to fly an aircraft must be sufficiently mature educationally, physically and mentally to acquire, retain and demonstrate the relevant theoretical knowledge and practical skill”.
17 Years of Age: An applicant for the issue of a PPL(A) shall be at least 17 years of age.

Licence issue

Before you apply for the issue of a PPL, you shall have fulfilled the requirements for the class or type rating for the aircraft used in the skill test. The easiest, cheapest, fastest and safest rating to get your PPL on, is the Single-Engine Piston (SEP) Land class rating. As soon as you have your PPL(A)/SEP Land issued, you may go ahead and add-on further ratings and/or certificates.

Training Course

Applicants for a PPL shall complete a training course at an Approved Training Organization (ATO) or at a Declared Training Organization (DTO).

The course shall include theoretical knowledge and flight instruction appropriate to the privileges of the PPL applied for; PPL(A), PPL(H), etc.

Theoretical knowledge instruction and flight instruction may be completed at a DTO or at an ATO different from the one where applicants have commenced their training. In cases where the applicant completes the training course (theoretical knowledge instruction or flight instruction) at a different DTO or ATO (‘completing training organisation’) from the one where they have started the training course (‘starting training organization’), the applicant should request from the starting training organization a copy of the records.

Entry to Training

Before being accepted for PPL training, an applicant should be informed that the appropriate medical certificate must be obtained before solo flying is permitted.

Flight instruction

The PPL flight instruction syllabus takes into account the principles of Threat & Error (TEM) management and also covers:

(i) pre-flight operations, including mass and balance determination, aircraft inspection and servicing;
(ii) aerodrome and traffic pattern operations, collision avoidance precautions and procedures;
(iii) control of the aircraft by external visual reference;
(iv) flight at critically low air speeds, recognition of, and recovery from, incipient and full stalls;
(v) flight at critically high air speeds, recognition of, and recovery from, spiral dive;
(vi) normal and crosswind take-offs and landings;
(vii) maximum performance (short field and obstacle clearance) takeoffs, short-field landings;
(viii) flight by reference solely to instruments, including the completion of a level 180 ° turn;
(ix) cross-country flying using visual reference, dead reckoning and radio navigation aids;
(x) emergency operations, including simulated aeroplane equipment malfunctions;
(xi) operations to, from and transiting controlled aerodromes, compliance with air traffic services procedures, communication procedures and phraseology.

Flight Instruction – Syllabus

The numbering of exercises shown below, should be used primarily as an exercise reference list and as a broad instructional sequencing guide; therefore the demonstrations and practices need not necessarily be given in the order listed. The actual order and content will depend upon the following interrelated factors:

(i) the applicant’s progress and ability;
(ii) the weather conditions affecting the flight;
(iii) the flight time available;
(iv) instructional technique considerations;
(v) the local operating environment;
(vi) applicability of the exercises to the aeroplane.

Flight Instruction – Exercises

Each of the exercises involves the need for the applicant to be aware of the needs of good airmanship and look-out, which should be emphasized at all times.

Exercise 1a: Familiarisation with the aeroplane:

(A) characteristics of the aeroplane;
(B) cockpit layout;
(C) systems;
(D) checklists, drills and controls.

Exercise 1b: Emergency drills:

(A) action if fire on the ground and in the air;
(B) engine cabin and electrical system fire;
(C) systems failure;
(D) escape drills, location and use of emergency equipment and exits.

Exercise 2: Preparation for and action after flight:

(A) flight authorization and aeroplane acceptance;
(B) serviceability documents;
(C) equipment required, maps, etc.;
(D) external checks;
(E) internal checks;
(F) harness, seat or rudder panel adjustments;
(G) starting and warm-up checks;
(H) power checks;
(I) running down system checks and switching off the engine;
(J) parking, security and picketing (for example tie down);
(K) completion of authorisation sheet and serviceability documents.

Exercise 3: Air experience: flight exercise.

Exercise 4: Effects of controls:

(A) primary effects when laterally level and when banked;
(B) further effects of aileron and rudder;
(C) effects of:

(a) air speed;
(b) slipstream;
(c) power;
(d) trimming controls;
(e) flaps;
(f) other controls, as applicable.

(D) operation of:

(a) mixture control;
(b) carburetor heat;
(c) cabin heating or ventilation.

Exercise 5a: Taxiing:

(A) pre-taxi checks;
(B) starting, control of speed and stopping;
(C) engine handling;
(D) control of direction and turning;
(E) turning in confined spaces;
(F) parking area procedure and precautions;
(G) effects of wind and use of flying controls;
(H) effects of ground surface;
(I) freedom of rudder movement;
(J) marshalling signals;
(K) instrument checks;
(L) air traffic control procedures.

Exercise 5b: Emergencies: brake and steering failure.

Exercise 6: Straight and level:

(A) at normal cruising power, attaining and maintaining straight and level flight;
(B) flight at critically high air speeds;
(C) demonstration of inherent stability;
(D) control in pitch, including use of trim;
(E) lateral level, direction and balance and trim;
(F) at selected air speeds (use of power);
(G) during speed and configuration changes;
(H) use of instruments for precision.

Exercise 7: Climbing:

(A) entry, maintaining the normal and max rate climb and leveling off;
(B) leveling off at selected altitudes;
(C) en-route climb (cruise climb);
(D) climbing with flap down;
(E) recovery to normal climb;
(F) maximum angle of climb;
(G) use of instruments for precision.

Exercise 8: Descending:

(A) entry, maintaining and levelling off;
(B) levelling off at selected altitudes;
(C) glide, powered and cruise descent (including effect of power and air speed);
(D) side slipping (on suitable types);
(E) use of instruments for precision flight.

Exercise 9: Turning:

(A) entry and maintaining medium level turns;
(B) resuming straight flight;
(C) faults in the turn (for example in correct pitch, bank and balance);
(D) climbing turns;
(E) descending turns;
(F) faults in the turns (slipping and skidding on suitable types);
(G) turns onto selected headings, use of gyro heading indicator and compass;
(H) use of instruments for precision.

Exercise 10a: Slow flight:
Note: the objective is to improve the student’s ability to recognize inadvertent flight at critically low speeds and provide practice in maintaining the aeroplane in balance while returning to normal air speed.

(A) safety checks;
(B) introduction to slow flight;
(C) controlled flight down to critically slow air speed;
(D) application of full power with correct attitude and balance to achieve normal climb speed.

Exercise 10b: Stalling:

(A) safety checks;
(B) symptoms;
(C) recognition;
(D) clean stall and recovery without power and with power;
(E) recovery when a wing drops;
(F) approach to stall in the approach and in the landing configurations, with and without power and recovery at the incipient stage.

Exercise 11: Spin avoidance:

(A) safety checks;
(B) stalling and recovery at the incipient spin stage (stall with excessive wing drop, about 45°);
(C) instructor induced distractions during the stall.
Note 1: at least two hours of stall awareness and spin avoidance flight training should be completed during the course.
Note 2: consideration of manoeuvre limitations and the need to refer to the aeroplane manual and mass and balance calculations.

Exercise 12: Take-off and climb to downwind position:

(A) pre-take-off checks;
(B) into wind take-off;
(C) safeguarding the nose wheel;
(D) crosswind take-off;
(E) drills during and after take-off;
(F) short take-off and soft field procedure/techniques including performance calculations;
(G) noise abatement procedures.

Exercise 13: Circuit, approach and landing:

(A) circuit procedures, downwind and base leg;
(B) powered approach and landing;
(C) safeguarding the nose wheel;
(D) effect of wind on approach and touchdown speeds and use of flaps;
(E) crosswind approach and landing;
(F) glide approach and landing;
(G) short landing and soft field procedures or techniques;
(H) flapless approach and landing;
(I) wheel landing (tail wheel aeroplanes);
(J) missed approach and go-around;
(K) noise abatement procedures.

Exercise 12/13: Emergencies:

(A) abandoned take-off;
(B) engine failure after take-off;
(C) mislanding and go-around;
(D) missed approach.
Note: in the interests of safety it will be necessary for pilots trained on nose wheel aeroplanes to undergo dual conversion training before flying tail wheel aeroplanes, and vice-versa.

Exercise 14: First solo:

(A) instructor’s briefing, observation of flight and de-briefing;
Note: during flights immediately following the solo circuit consolidation the following should be revised:
(B) procedures for leaving and rejoining the circuit;
(C) the local area, restrictions, map reading;
(D) use of radio aids for homing;
(E) turns using magnetic compass, compass errors.

Exercise 15: Advanced turning:

(A) steep turns (45°), level and descending;
(B) stalling in the turn and recovery;
(C) recoveries from unusual attitudes, including spiral dives.

Exercise 16: Forced landing without power:

(A) forced landing procedure;
(B) choice of landing area, provision for change of plan;
(C) gliding distance;
(D) descent plan;
(E) key positions;
(F) engine cooling;
(G) engine failure checks;
(H) use of radio;
(I) base leg;
(J) final approach;
(K) landing;
(L) actions after landing.

Exercise 17: Precautionary landing:

(A) full procedure away from aerodrome to break-off height;
(B) occasions necessitating;
(C) in-flight conditions;
(D) landing area selection:

(a) normal aerodrome;
(b) disused aerodrome;
(c) ordinary field.

(E) circuit and approach;
(F) actions after landing.

Exercise 18a: Navigation:

(A) flight planning:

(a) weather forecast and actuals;
(b) map selection and preparation:

(1) choice of route;
(2) controlled airspace;
(3) danger, prohibited and restricted areas;
(4) safety altitudes.

(c) calculations:

(1) magnetic heading(s) and time(s) en-route;
(2) fuel consumption;
(3) mass and balance;
(4) mass and performance.

(d) flight information:

(1) NOTAMs etc.;
(2) radio frequencies;
(3) selection of alternate aerodromes.

(e) aeroplane documentation;
(f) notification of the flight:

(1) pre-flight administrative procedures;
(2) flight plan form.

(B) departure:

(a) organisation of cockpit workload;
(b) departure procedures:

(1) altimeter settings;
(2) ATC liaison in controlled or regulated airspace;
(3) setting heading procedure;
(4) noting of ETAs.

(c) maintenance of altitude and heading;
(d) revisions of ETA and heading;
(e) log keeping;
(f) use of radio;
(g) use of navaids;
(h) minimum weather conditions for continuation of flight;
(i) in-flight decisions;
(j) transiting controlled or regulated airspace;
(k) diversion procedures;
(l) uncertainty of position procedure;
(m) lost procedure.

(C) arrival and aerodrome joining procedure:

(a) ATC liaison in controlled or regulated airspace;
(b) altimeter setting;
(c) entering the traffic pattern;
(d) circuit procedures;
(e) parking;
(f) security of aeroplane;
(g) refuelling;
(h) closing of flight plan, if appropriate;
(i) post-flight administrative procedures.

Exercise 18b: Navigation problems at lower levels and in reduced visibility:

(A) actions before descending;
(B) hazards (for example obstacles and terrain);
(C) difficulties of map reading;
(D) effects of wind and turbulence;
(E) vertical situational awareness (avoidance of controlled flight into terrain);
(F) avoidance of noise sensitive areas;
(G) joining the circuit;
(H) bad weather circuit and landing.

Exercise 18c: Radio navigation:

(A) use of GNSS:

(a) selection of waypoints;
(b) to or from indications and orientation;
(c) error messages.

(B) use of VOR (VHF Omni-directional Radio range):

(a) availability, AIP and frequencies;
(b) selection and identification;
(c) OBS;
(d) to or from indications and orientation;
(e) CDI;
(f) determination of radial;
(g) intercepting and maintaining a radial;
(h) VOR passage;
(i) obtaining a fix from two VORs.

(C) use of ADF equipment: NDBs:

(a) availability, AIP and frequencies;
(b) selection and identification;
(c) orientation relative to the beacon;
(d) homing.

(D) use of VHF/DF:

(a) availability, AIP, frequencies;
(b) R/T procedures and ATC liaison;
(c) obtaining a QDM and homing.

(E) use of en-route or terminal radar:

(a) availability and AIP;
(b) procedures and ATC liaison;
(c) pilot’s responsibilities;
(d) secondary surveillance radar:

(1) transponders;
(2) code selection;
(3) interrogation and reply.

(F) use of DME:

(a) station selection and identification;
(b) modes of operation: distance, groundspeed and time to run.

Exercise 19: Basic instrument flight:

(A) physiological sensations;
(B) instrument appreciation; attitude instrument flight;
(C) instrument limitations;
(D) basic manoeuvres:

(a) straight and level at various air speeds and configurations;
(b) climbing and descending;
(c) standard rate turns, climbing and descending, onto selected headings;
(d) recoveries from climbing and descending turns.

Flight Instruction – Use of a Basic Instrument Training Device (BITD)

A BITD may be used for flight training for:

(i) flight by reference solely to instruments;
(ii) navigation using radio navigation aids;
(iii) basic instrument flight.

The use of the BITD should be subject to the following:

(i) the training should be complemented by exercises on an aeroplane;
(ii) the record of the parameters of the flight must be available;
(iii) A Flight Instructor [FI(A)] or Synthetic Training Instructor [STI(A)] should conduct the instruction.

 

Theoretical knowledge examination

Applicants for a PPL [PPL(A), PPL(H), etc.] shall demonstrate a level of theoretical knowledge, appropriate to the privileges granted, through examinations in the following subjects:

(a) common subjects:

— Air law,
— Human performance,
— Meteorology,
— Communications, and
— Navigation.

(b) specific subjects concerning the different aircraft categories (Aeroplane, Helicopter, etc.):

— Principles of flight,
— Operational procedures,
— Flight performance and planning, and
— Aircraft general knowledge.

Responsibilities of the applicant

One competent authority

Applicants shall take the entire set of theoretical knowledge examinations for a specific licence or rating, under the responsibility of the same Member State’s competent authority. In other words, the student pilot is expected to pass all 9 PPL exam subjects either in Cyprus or Greece or Germany, etc.

Letter of recommendation for theoretical exams

Applicants shall only take the theoretical knowledge examination when recommended by the declared training organisation (DTO) or the approved training organisation (ATO) responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard. The recommendation by a DTO or an ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicant.

Pass standards

75% Pass Mark

A pass in a theoretical knowledge examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75 % of the marks allocated to that paper. No penalty marking shall be applied.

18 Months

An applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination for the appropriate pilot licence or rating if he or she has passed all the required theoretical knowledge examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination.

4 Attempts per Subject

If applicants for the issue of a private pilot licence (PPL) have failed to pass one of the theoretical knowledge examination papers within four attempts or have failed to pass all papers within the 18 months period mentioned above, they shall retake the complete set of 9 theoretical knowledge examination papers.

Retake Theoretical Exams

Before retaking the theoretical knowledge examinations, applicants shall undertake further training at a DTO or an ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the DTO or the ATO, based on the needs of the applicants.

Skill Test

(a) Through the completion of a skill test, applicants for a PPL shall demonstrate the ability to perform as Pilot-In-Command (PIC) on the appropriate aircraft category, their knowledge of relevant procedures and manoeuvres with the competency appropriate to the privileges granted.
(b) Applicants for the skill test shall have received flight instruction on the same class or type of aircraft to be used for the skill test.
(c) Pass marks

(1) The skill test shall be divided into different sections, representing all the different phases of flight appropriate to the category of aircraft flown.
(2) Failure in any item of a section will cause the applicant to fail the entire section. If the applicant fails only 1 section, he/she shall repeat only that section. Failure in more than 1 section will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.
(3) When the test needs to be repeated in accordance with (2), failure in any section, including those that have been passed on a previous attempt, will cause the applicant to fail the entire test.
(4) Failure to achieve a pass in all sections of the test in 2 attempts will require further training.

 

Licence Issue and Experience Requirements

Applicants for a PPL(A) shall have completed at least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes, 5 hours of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:

(a) 25 hours of dual flight instruction

(b) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time

(c) at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made

(d) Part Med.A.030 states that a Class 2 medical certificate is required for the holder/applicant of a PPL(A)

(e) FCL.055 Language proficiency states an aeroplane, helicopter, powered-lift and airship pilots required to use the radio telephone shall not exercise the privileges of their licences and ratings unless they have a language proficiency endorsement on their licence in either English or the language used for radio communications involved in the flight. The Operational Level (Level 4) is the minimum required proficiency level for radiotelephony communication

Flight Training

The student pilot for a PPL(A) shall obtain an appropriate medical certificate at least before his/her solo flight

At least 45 hours of flight instruction in aeroplanes, 5 of which may have been completed in an FSTD, including at least:

(a) 25 hours of dual flight instruction

(b) 10 hours of supervised solo flight time

(c) at least 5 hours of solo cross-country flight time with at least 1 cross-country flight of at least 270 km (150 NM), during which full stop landings at 2 aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made

Ground Training

Theoretical knowledge instruction covering the following subjects:

Air Law
Human Performance
Meteorology
Communications
Operational Procedures – Aeroplanes
Principles of Flight – Aeroplanes
Flight Performance and Planning – Aeroplanes
Aircraft General Knowledge – Aeroplanes
Navigation – Aeroplanes

Theoretical Knowledge Examinations

Applicants shall only take the examination when recommended by the DTO / ATO responsible for their training, once they have completed the appropriate elements of the training course of theoretical knowledge instruction to a satisfactory standard

The recommendation by a DTO / ATO shall be valid for 12 months. If the applicant has failed to attempt at least one theoretical knowledge examination paper within this period of validity, the need for further training shall be determined by the DTO / ATO, based on the needs of the applicant

The examination subjects are as follows:

Air Law
Human Performance
Meteorology
Communications
Operational Procedures – Aeroplanes
Principles of Flight – Aeroplanes
Flight Performance and Planning – Aeroplanes
Aircraft General Knowledge – Aeroplanes
Navigation – Aeroplanes

Examination Assessment
A pass in an examination paper will be awarded to an applicant achieving at least 75% of the marks allocated to that paper. There is no penalty marking

An applicant has successfully completed the required theoretical knowledge examination when he/she has passed all the required examination papers within a period of 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination

If an applicant has failed to pass one of the examination papers within 4 attempts or 18 months counted from the end of the calendar month when the applicant first attempted an examination, he/she shall re-take the complete set of examination papers

Before re-taking the examinations, the applicant shall undertake further training at a DTO / ATO. The extent and scope of the training needed shall be determined by the training organisation, based on the needs of the applicant

PPL(A) Skill Test

Before the skill test is taken, the applicant shall have passed the required theoretical knowledge examination

In any case, the theoretical knowledge instruction shall always have been completed before the skill tests are taken.

The applicant for a skill test shall be recommended for the test by the organisation/person responsible for the training, once the training is completed. The training records shall be made available to the examiner. The PPL(A) skill test schedule is given below

Note: Use of checklist, airmanship, control of aeroplane by external visual reference, anti/de-icing procedures, etc., apply in all sections

Section 1 Pre-Flight Operations and Departure
Pre-flight documentation, NOTAM and weather briefing
Mass and balance and performance calculation
Aeroplane inspection and servicing
Engine starting and after starting procedures
Taxiing and aerodrome procedures, pre-take-off procedures
Take-off and after take-off checks
Aerodrome departure procedures
ATC compliance and R/T procedures

Section 2 General Airwork
ATC compliance and R/T procedures
Straight and level flight, with speed changes
Climbing:
(i) best rate of climb
(ii) climbing turns
(iii) levelling off
Medium (30° bank) turns
Steep (45° bank) turns (including recognition and recovery from a spiral dive)
Flight at critically low air speed with and without flaps
Stalling:
(i) clean stall and recover with power
(ii) approach to stall descending turn with bank angle 20°, approach configuration
(iii) approach to stall in landing configuration
Descending:
(i) with and without power
(ii) descending turns (steep gliding turns)
(iii) levelling off

Section 3 En-Route Procedures
Flight plan, dead reckoning and map reading
Maintenance of altitude, heading and speed
Orientation, timing and revision of ETAs and log keeping
Diversion to alternate aerodrome (planning and implementation)
Use of radio navigation aids
Basic instrument flying check (180° turn in simulated IMC)
Flight management (checks, fuel systems and carburettor icing, etc.)
ATC compliance and R/T procedures

Section 4 Approach and Landing Procedures
Aerodrome arrival procedures
*Precision landing (short field landing), crosswind, if suitable conditions available
*Flapless landing
*Approach to landing with idle power (SE only)
Touch and go
Go-around from low height
ATC compliance and R/T procedures
Actions after flight
(* These items may be combined at the discretion of the examiner)

Section 5 Abnormal and Emergency Procedures
(This section may be combined with sections 1 through 4)

Simulated engine failure after take-off (SE only)
*Simulated forced landing (SE only)
Simulated precautionary landing (SE only)
Simulated emergencies
Oral questions
(* These items may be combined at the discretion of the examiner)

Section 6 Simulated Asymmetric Flight and Relevant Class or Type Items
(This section may be combined with sections 1 through 5)

Simulated engine failure during take-off (at a safe altitude unless carried out in an FFS)
Asymmetric approach and go-around
Asymmetric approach and full stop landing
Engine shutdown and restart
ATC compliance, R/T procedures or airmanship
As determined by the FE: any relevant items of the class or type rating skill test to include, if applicable:
(i) aeroplane systems including handling of auto pilot
(ii) operation of pressurisation system
(iii) use of de-icing and anti-icing system
Oral questions

References

UK CAA Standards Document 19
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)
AIP
CAP 413 Radiotelephony Manual
CAP 637 Visual Aids Handbook
Questions and Answers for the PPL Course by Jim Stevens and Jeremy M Pratt
The Private Pilots Licence Course by Jeremy M Pratt
Commission Regulation (EU) No 1178/2011 AMC and GM
SER

Carriage of Passengers

A pilot shall not operate an aircraft carrying passengers:

(a) as PIC or co-pilot unless he/she has carried out, in the preceding 90 days, at least 3 take-offs, approaches and landings in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class

(b) as PIC at night unless he/she:

(i) has carried out in the preceding 90 days at least 1 take-off, approach and landing at night as a pilot flying in an aircraft of the same type or class or an FFS representing that type or class
OR
(ii) holds an IR

Weather Minima

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) in sight of the surface 1.5 km visibility outside controlled airspace or 5 km visibility in Class C, D and E airspace

Controlled Airspace

Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in class A, B or C airspace requires an Instrument Rating (IR)
IFR in class D and E airspace requires an Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) Rating / IR (Restricted) or IR

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